Legal Article

Understanding Vicarious Liability Under the Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881

Shivendra Pratap Singh


High Court Lucknow


Reading Time:

Published on: 21 Aug, 2023


Vicarious liability refers to the legal responsibility of one party for the actions or conduct of another, generally because of a specific relationship between the two, such as employer-employee or company-director. In the context of the Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881 (the Act), this concept is most relevant when a cheque issued by a company is dishonored, impacting not only the company itself but also its directors and other officers. This article aims to explain how vicarious liability is construed under the Act.

Section 138

Section 138 of the Act makes the drawer of a dishonored cheque liable for penalties, which could include imprisonment for up to two years, a fine amounting to twice the cheque value, or both.

Section 141

The concept of vicarious liability is most clearly addressed in Section 141 of the Act. According to this section, if a company commits an offense under Section 138, then:

  • The company itself is liable for prosecution.
  • Every person in charge of, and responsible for, the company at the time when the offense was committed may also be deemed to be guilty of the offense.

Conditions for Imposing Vicarious Liability

  1. Active Role: Vicarious liability is generally imposed on those officers or directors who have an active role in the company and are responsible for its functioning.
  2. Knowledge and Neglect: Officers may be held liable if it can be proven that the offense was committed with their consent or as a result of their neglect.
  3. Officer in Default: Liability may extend to any officer deemed to be an “officer in default” for being knowingly involved in the offending conduct.

Exclusions and Defenses

  1. Non-Involvement: Directors can escape liability if they can prove they were not involved in the daily operations of the company at the time of the offense.
  2. Due Diligence: Officers may also be exempted if they can demonstrate that they had exercised all due diligence to prevent the commission of the offense.

Practical Implications

  1. Legal Consequences: Being found vicariously liable can result in imprisonment, hefty fines, or both.
  2. Reputational Damage: Beyond legal penalties, those held vicariously liable may also suffer significant damage to their professional reputation.
  3. Corporate Governance: The provisions related to vicarious liability emphasize the importance of responsible corporate governance and ethical business practices.


The concept of vicarious liability under the Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881, is critical for company officers to understand. With this liability, the law aims to ensure accountability not only at the organizational level but also at the individual level. Therefore, company directors and officers must exercise great caution when dealing with financial instruments like cheques to ensure compliance with the Act and to avoid potential vicarious liability.


  1. Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881 – Ministry of Law, Government of India
  2. “Corporate Criminal Liability: An Overview” – Indian Corporate Law Journal

Disclaimer: This article is for informational purposes only and should not be considered as legal advice.

For a more thorough understanding and personalized guidance, consulting with legal experts is highly recommended.


We invite your question: Comment below


Submit a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *