Legal Article

Understanding the Arbitration and Conciliation Act in India

Shivendra Pratap Singh


High Court Lucknow


Reading Time:

Published on: 21 Aug, 2023

The Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996 is a comprehensive piece of legislation in India that governs the process of arbitration and conciliation. Derived from the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) model, it aims to provide an alternative to the traditional litigation system for resolving disputes. The Act sets forth a procedural framework for the arbitration process and seeks to ensure fairness, efficiency, and enforceability. In this blog post, we will delve into the intricacies of the Act, its advantages, and some key considerations for anyone contemplating arbitration in India.

Key Features


  1. Arbitration Agreement: A written agreement between the parties that defines the scope and terms of arbitration.
  2. Arbitral Tribunal: Consists of arbitrators (usually one or three) selected by parties or through a specified process to make an award.
  3. Interim Measures: The Act allows the tribunal or court to grant interim measures before or during arbitration proceedings.
  4. Arbitral Proceedings: Covers the whole range of procedures from the initiation to the final arbitral award.
  5. Arbitral Award: The final judgment given by the arbitral tribunal, which is enforceable as a court order.


  1. Voluntary Process: Conciliation is not binding and is based on the willingness of the parties to participate.
  2. Neutral Third Party: A conciliator helps the parties to negotiate but cannot impose a decision.
  3. Confidentiality: The Act protects the confidentiality of the conciliation process and its outcomes.
  4. Settlement Agreement: If parties reach an agreement, it has the same status as an arbitral award.

Advantages of Arbitration and Conciliation

  1. Speed: Typically faster than court litigation.
  2. Cost-Effectiveness: Often less expensive due to shorter time frames.
  3. Expertise: Parties can select arbitrators with specialized knowledge.
  4. Confidentiality: Proceedings are private and confidential.
  5. Flexibility: Allows parties to design procedures tailored to their needs.


  1. Limited Appeal: Limited options to challenge an arbitral award.
  2. Cost: High arbitrator fees can sometimes make it costly.
  3. Enforceability: Challenges may arise in enforcing an award internationally.

Key Case Laws

  1. Bharat Aluminium Co vs Kaiser Aluminium Technical Service, Inc.: Clarified the jurisdiction of Indian courts over foreign-seated arbitrations.
  2. ONGC vs Saw Pipes: Defined what constitutes a “public policy” ground for challenging an arbitral award.


The Act has undergone several amendments, the latest being in 2019, to make arbitration more user-friendly, cost-effective, and suitable for quick disposal of cases.


The Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996 plays a pivotal role in shaping alternative dispute resolution mechanisms in India. While it offers numerous advantages like speed and flexibility, it also poses challenges, including high costs and limited avenues for appeal. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the Act is crucial for anyone seeking to engage in arbitration or conciliation in India.

Further Reading

  1. The Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996 – Bare Act
  2. Amendments to the Arbitration and Conciliation Act


This blog post is intended for informational purposes only and does not constitute legal advice. Consult a legal expert for advice tailored to your individual circumstances.