Legal Article

Understanding Section 65B of the Evidence Act: Main Elements of a Certificate

Shivendra Pratap Singh


High Court Lucknow


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Published on: 6 Aug, 2023

The admissibility of electronic records in the court of law has become pivotal in the digital era. Section 65B of the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 deals with the admissibility of electronic records in legal proceedings. Let’s delve deep into understanding the main elements of the certificate required under this section.

1. Background: What is Section 65B?

Before jumping into the certificate’s elements, it’s essential to understand the context. Section 65B details the admissibility of electronic records in any legal proceedings. In simpler terms, for an electronic record to be considered valid evidence in a court, it must meet certain conditions, one of which is having a certificate as per the stipulations of Section 65B(4).

2. Why is the Certificate Important?

A Section 65B certificate authenticates the electronic evidence, ensuring its integrity and proving that it hasn’t been tampered with since its creation. The certificate is a testament to the genuineness of the electronic record in question.

3. Main Elements of the Certificate

Now, let’s discuss the integral elements of the certificate as outlined in the provision:

  • a. Description of the Document or Record: The certificate must provide a clear description of the electronic record. This ensures that the record in question is identifiable without ambiguity.
  • b. Manner of Production: The certificate should elucidate how the electronic record was produced. For instance, was it generated automatically by a machine without human intervention, or did someone create it manually?
  • c. Affirmation of the System’s Integrity: The person issuing the certificate must affirm that the computer system that produced the electronic record was functioning properly. If there was any intermittent malfunction, the certificate should state that it didn’t affect the integrity of the electronic record.
  • d. Details of the Device: The certificate should provide specific details about the device used to produce the record. This can include the device’s type, model, and other pertinent information.
  • e. Date and Time: This is a crucial element. The certificate must specify the date and time when the electronic record was produced. This ensures a clear timeline of events and is particularly important when the timing of events is pivotal to the case.
  • f. Details of the Person: The certificate should include details of the person who has secured the electronic record, emphasizing their relationship with the party presenting the evidence. This ensures the authenticity and credibility of the evidence.

4. Who can Issue the Certificate?

The certificate can be issued by anyone who:

  • Was in charge of the operation of the device; or
  • Was responsible for the management of relevant electronic records.

This doesn’t necessarily mean the person should have first-hand knowledge about the creation of the electronic record, but they should be well-acquainted with the computer system and its functioning.

In the contemporary digital era, where emails, digital contracts, online transactions, and other electronic records have become commonplace, Section 65B provides a robust mechanism for ensuring their authenticity in legal proceedings. The comprehensive certificate process outlined in this section safeguards against potential misuse of digital evidence and ensures that justice is served.

Understanding and adhering to the provisions of Section 65B and its certificate requirements is of paramount importance for legal practitioners, digital forensic experts, and anyone seeking to present electronic records in a court of law.

By comprehensively understanding Section 65B and the elements of its certificate, individuals and legal professionals can better navigate the complexities of electronic evidence in the modern legal landscape.