Legal Article

The Hindu Marriage Act: Understanding the Conditions for Solemnizing Marriage

Shivendra Pratap Singh


High Court Lucknow


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Published on: 21 Aug, 2023

The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955, is a landmark legislation that governs the conditions under which a marriage can be solemnized among Hindus, Buddhists, Jains, and Sikhs in India. The Act not only outlines the legal framework for marriage but also provides guidelines for its dissolution, including divorce and separation. This comprehensive blog post aims to shed light on the conditions under which a marriage can be solemnized under this Act.

Disclaimer: This article is for informational purposes only and should not be considered as legal advice. Consult a qualified lawyer for personalized guidance.

The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955

The Hindu Marriage Act was enacted to standardize the various personal laws that existed among Hindus before its implementation. It provides a legal structure for the institution of marriage, from its commencement to its termination.

Who is Covered?

The Act applies to any person who is a Hindu by religion, including Buddhists, Jains, and Sikhs, and who is domiciled in India. It also applies to Hindus outside the territories of India, provided they are not governed by their own personal laws.

Conditions for Solemnizing a Marriage

Age Requirement

  • The bridegroom must be at least 21 years old, and the bride must be at least 18 years old at the time of marriage.

Mental Capacity

  • Both parties must be mentally sound at the time of the marriage. They should be capable of giving valid consent and should not suffer from any mental disorder that impairs their fitness for marriage and procreation of children.

No Sapinda Relationship

  • The parties should not be within the degrees of prohibited relationship unless custom or tradition governing each of them permits such a marriage.

Not Already Married

  • Neither party should have a spouse living at the time of the marriage, i.e., bigamy is prohibited.

Ceremony and Rituals

  • The Act recognizes the importance of rituals and ceremonies in Hindu marriages, including the Saptapadi (the taking of seven steps by the bridegroom and the bride jointly before the sacred fire). The marriage becomes complete and binding when the seventh step is taken.

Documentation and Registration

  1. Marriage Certificate: Although not mandatory, it’s advisable to obtain a marriage certificate as proof of marriage.
  2. Witnesses: Typically, two witnesses are required during the marriage registration process.
  3. Identification and Age Proof: Both parties need to provide identification and age proof, usually in the form of a birth certificate, passport, or Aadhar card.
  1. Nullity of Marriage: If any of the conditions are violated, the marriage can be declared null and void.
  2. Penalties: Violating conditions like age requirement or bigamy can result in legal penalties, including imprisonment.


The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955, provides a comprehensive legal framework for solemnizing marriages among Hindus, Buddhists, Jains, and Sikhs in India. It outlines specific conditions that must be met for a marriage to be legally recognized. Understanding these conditions is crucial for anyone planning to get married under this Act, as failure to meet them could result in legal complications, including the nullity of the marriage.

Note: Laws are subject to change. Always consult professionals for the most current advice.


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