Legal Article

Section 13(1)(iii) Hindu Marriage Act 1955

Shivendra Pratap Singh


High Court Lucknow


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Published on: 21 Aug, 2023

Divorce is a complex and emotionally taxing process, and when it comes to the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955, the legal intricacies can be overwhelming. One of the grounds for divorce under this act is Section 13(1)(iii), which pertains to “incurable unsoundness of mind” or mental disorder. This blog post aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of this specific section, its implications, and how to navigate the legal landscape if you find yourself in a situation that warrants its application.

Disclaimer: This article is for informational purposes only and should not be considered as legal advice. Consult a qualified lawyer for personalized guidance.

The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955

The Hindu Marriage Act governs the conditions under which a marriage can be solemnized, and subsequently dissolved, among Hindus, Buddhists, Jains, and Sikhs in India.

Section 13(1)(iii) Explained

Section 13(1)(iii) states that either spouse can seek divorce if the other has been “incurably of unsound mind, or has been suffering continuously or intermittently from mental disorder of such a kind and to such an extent that the petitioner cannot reasonably be expected to live with the respondent.”

Criteria for Mental Disorder

The term “mental disorder” is generally understood to include mental illness, arrested or incomplete development of mind, psychopathic disorder, or any other disorder or disability of mind.

Steps to File for Divorce Under Section 13(1)(iii)

1. Consult a Lawyer

The first step is to consult a lawyer who specializes in family law. They can guide you through the legal procedures and help you understand your rights and responsibilities.

2. Medical Documentation

Collect all medical records and documentation that prove the spouse’s mental disorder. This may include psychiatric evaluations, treatment records, and expert opinions.

3. File the Petition

Prepare and file the divorce petition in the family court, citing “incurable unsoundness of mind” as the ground for divorce. Attach all necessary medical documents.

4. Court Proceedings

Once the petition is filed, the court will serve a notice to the respondent (the spouse with the mental disorder). The court may require further evaluations by court-appointed medical professionals.

The court will scrutinize the evidence and may call for witnesses. Both parties will be given an opportunity to present their case.

6. Court Judgment

If the court is convinced that the mental disorder is incurable and that cohabitation is not possible, it may grant the divorce.

Ethical Considerations

  1. Stigma: Be sensitive to the stigma associated with mental disorders. The process should be handled respectfully and privately.
  2. Moral Responsibility: Consider the ethical implications of leaving a spouse in a vulnerable condition. Consult with family and medical professionals to explore all options for treatment and support.

Financial and Child Custody Aspects

  1. Alimony: The court may order the petitioner to provide financial support or alimony to the respondent, especially if the mental disorder prevents them from being self-sufficient.
  2. Child Custody: If children are involved, the court will make decisions based on what is in the best interest of the child. A parent’s mental disorder can significantly impact this decision.


Section 13(1)(iii) of the Hindu Marriage Act provides a legal avenue for divorce on the grounds of incurable mental disorder, but it’s a complex and sensitive issue that requires careful consideration and planning. It involves not just legal procedures but also ethical dilemmas and potential financial obligations. Always consult with legal and medical professionals to navigate this challenging process effectively.

Note: Laws and medical guidelines are subject to change. Always consult professionals for the most current advice.


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