Legal Article

Protection of Rape Victims’ Privacy: A Constitutional Obligation in India

Shivendra Pratap Singh


High Court Lucknow


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Published on: 21 Aug, 2023


The privacy and dignity of rape victims are of paramount importance in the Indian legal system. Revealing the identity of a rape victim is a punishable offense under Indian law, designed to safeguard the victim from further trauma and stigmatization. This commitment to protecting the privacy of rape victims is also in alignment with the principles laid down in the Indian Constitution.

Section 228A of the Indian Penal Code

Section 228A explicitly criminalizes the disclosure of the identity of a rape victim, making it punishable with either a fine or imprisonment, or both. This extends to printing or publishing the victim’s name, and also any material which could indirectly make the victim identifiable.

The Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act, 2012

In the case of minors, the POCSO Act provides additional protections against disclosure, reflecting the vulnerable status of children.

Constitutional Backing

  1. Article 21: Right to Life and Personal Liberty
    The Supreme Court of India has interpreted the Right to Life to include the right to live with dignity and the right to privacy. Therefore, keeping the identity of rape victims confidential aligns with the fundamental rights under Article 21.
  2. Article 19(1)(a): Freedom of Speech and Expression
    While the Constitution allows freedom of speech and expression, this right is not absolute. It can be restricted on grounds of decency and morality, among other factors, which support the suppression of the identity of rape victims.

Importance of Anonymity

  1. Social Stigma: Victims often face severe social stigmatization and prejudice, which can have long-term consequences on their social, psychological, and physical well-being.
  2. Legal Proceedings: The anonymity of the victim is considered essential to ensure that the judicial process is uninfluenced by public opinion or social bias.
  3. Encouragement to Report: Knowing that their identity will be protected may encourage more victims to come forward and report these crimes.

International Perspective

India’s stance is consistent with international guidelines, such as the United Nations Declaration of Basic Principles of Justice for Victims of Crime and Abuse of Power, which emphasize the privacy and dignity of victims.


The anonymity of rape victims is not just a matter of legal requirement but also a constitutional obligation to uphold their right to life and personal liberty. By providing a legal framework to protect the identity of rape victims, the Indian law seeks to balance the freedom of speech and the necessity to protect the dignity and privacy of the individual involved. It serves as a pivotal step in acknowledging the sensitivity required in handling cases of sexual violence.


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