Indian Citizenship: Rights, Responsibilities, and Modes of Acquisition

Shivendra Pratap Singh


High Court Lucknow


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Indian citizenship is a crucial legal concept that defines the membership status of individuals within the Indian nation-state. It bestows upon them certain rights, privileges, and responsibilities, contributing to their identity as Indian citizens. The Constitution of India enshrines the principles of citizenship, and various laws govern its acquisition, loss, and renunciation. In this blog, we will explore the intricacies of Indian citizenship, the modes of its acquisition, and the rights and responsibilities that come with it.

I. Modes of Acquiring Indian Citizenship:

  1. Birth: a) Birth within India: Any person born within India on or after January 26, 1950, is considered an Indian citizen by birth, irrespective of the nationality of their parents. b) Birth to Indian Parents: A person born outside India to at least one Indian citizen parent is eligible for Indian citizenship by descent.
  2. Descent: a) Indian Parentage: A person born outside India on or after January 26, 1950, with both parents being Indian citizens, automatically acquires Indian citizenship by descent. b) Indian Grandparentage: Persons born outside India between January 26, 1950, and December 9, 2004, with at least one grandparent being an Indian citizen, may apply for citizenship by registration.
  3. Registration: a) Foreigners married to Indian Citizens: Foreign spouses married to Indian citizens for at least two years are eligible for citizenship by registration. b) Overseas Citizens of India (OCI): Foreign nationals of Indian origin or former Indian citizens, and their descendants, are eligible for OCI status, which provides multiple benefits similar to Indian citizenship except voting rights. c) Minor Children of Indian Citizens: Foreign-born minor children of Indian citizens may apply for citizenship by registration.
  4. Naturalization: Foreign nationals who have resided in India for at least twelve years (or seven years in special cases) and fulfill specific criteria, including good conduct, language proficiency, and renunciation of foreign citizenship, may be eligible for citizenship by naturalization.

II. Rights and Privileges of Indian Citizens:

  1. Right to Vote: Indian citizens above the age of 18 years have the right to vote in elections at various levels, empowering them to participate in the democratic process.
  2. Right to Hold Public Office: Indian citizens can contest elections and hold public offices, such as Member of Parliament (MP), Member of Legislative Assembly (MLA), etc.
  3. Right to Passport: Indian citizens can obtain Indian passports, facilitating international travel and providing diplomatic protection abroad.
  4. Right to Government Jobs: Indian citizens have access to government employment opportunities at various levels based on merit and qualifications.
  5. Access to Welfare Schemes: Indian citizens can avail themselves of various government welfare programs and schemes aimed at improving their living conditions.

III. Responsibilities of Indian Citizens:

  1. Allegiance and Loyalty: Indian citizens are expected to be loyal to the Indian nation-state and abide by its laws and constitution.
  2. Civic Duties: Citizens have a responsibility to exercise their right to vote and actively participate in the democratic process.
  3. Respect for Diversity: Indian citizens should respect the cultural, linguistic, and religious diversity of the country and promote harmony among various communities.
  4. Abiding by the Law: Citizens must follow all laws and regulations in the country, contributing to a peaceful and lawful society.

IV. Loss and Renunciation of Indian Citizenship:

  1. Renunciation: Indian citizens who acquire foreign citizenship can voluntarily renounce their Indian citizenship.
  2. Termination: The Government of India has the power to terminate the citizenship of an individual under certain circumstances, such as acquiring citizenship by fraudulent means.


Indian citizenship is a vital legal status that confers certain rights, privileges, and responsibilities upon individuals within the Indian nation-state. The modes of acquisition, including birth, descent, registration, and naturalization, offer different paths to becoming an Indian citizen.

While citizens enjoy the right to vote, hold public office, and access various government benefits, they also have the responsibility to contribute to the country’s progress and uphold its unity and diversity. Understanding Indian citizenship is essential to appreciate the significance of being part of this diverse and dynamic nation.