Legal Article

EPROM: An In-depth Look into Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory

Shivendra Pratap Singh


High Court Lucknow


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Published on: 7 Aug, 2023

In the realm of computer memory, few types have had as profound an impact in the early days of computing as the EPROM, or Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory. EPROMs, with their unique combination of non-volatility and reprogrammability, revolutionized the electronics industry in the 1970s and 1980s. Let’s dive deep into understanding EPROM, its function, and its significance.

1. What is EPROM?

EPROM is a type of memory chip that retains its content until it is exposed to ultraviolet light. Once exposed, the chip is erased and can be reprogrammed. Its ability to be programmed, erased, and then reprogrammed made it a popular choice for development and testing environments in the days before Flash memory.

2. How Does EPROM Work?

  • Programming: The process involves a special programming device known as an EPROM programmer or burner. By applying a higher voltage to the chip than is used during its standard operation, data can be written to EPROM.
  • Erasing: The data on an EPROM chip is erased by exposing it to intense ultraviolet light through its quartz window for a specific duration. After erasure, the chip returns to its default unprogrammed state.


While both EPROM and PROM (Programmable Read-Only Memory) are types of ROM, there’s a key distinction:

  • PROM can be programmed just once. Once the data is written, it’s permanent.
  • EPROM, as mentioned, can be erased and reprogrammed multiple times.

4. Advantages of EPROM

  • Reusability: The ability to reprogram the EPROM made it an economical choice for industries, as the same chip could be reused for different applications or updates.
  • Non-volatile Storage: EPROM retains its data even when the power is switched off, making it ideal for storing firmware or other data that must persist across reboots.

5. Drawbacks

  • Physical Erasure Process: The need to expose the chip to UV light made the erasure process cumbersome and time-consuming compared to today’s electronically erasable methods.
  • Finite Number of Program-Erase Cycles: While EPROM can be reprogrammed, it’s not infinite. Over time, the chip would degrade and lose its ability to be effectively reprogrammed.

6. Legacy and Evolution

  • EEPROM: The Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory evolved from EPROM. Unlike EPROM, EEPROM can be erased and reprogrammed electronically, without the need for UV exposure. This paved the way for the development of Flash memory.
  • Flash Memory: Today’s USB drives, SSDs, and other storage devices primarily use Flash memory, which offers fast, electrically erasable and programmable capabilities. Flash memory is essentially a modern evolution of the concepts introduced by EPROM.

7. Collectible and Historical Value

The unique appearance of EPROMs, with their transparent quartz window, has made them a nostalgic item for many tech enthusiasts. They represent a tangible link to a transformative era in computing history.


While EPROM might seem like a relic of the past, understanding its role in the evolution of computer memory offers valuable insights into the rapid pace of technological progress. EPROMs bridged the gap between one-time programmable ROMs and the high-speed, electronically reprogrammable memories we rely on today. As with many pioneering technologies, EPROM laid the foundation for the digital storage revolution that followed.