Legal Article

Domain-based Message Authentication, Reporting, and Conformance (DMARC): Building a Fortified Email Ecosystem

Shivendra Pratap Singh


High Court Lucknow


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Published on: 6 Aug, 2023

Domain-based Message Authentication: The world communicates through email. Yet, just as it is a powerful tool for exchange and collaboration, email is also a favorite playground for cyber attackers. Spoofed email addresses and phishing attacks are rampant, putting users and organizations at constant risk. To fortify this front, the tech world introduced DMARC — Domain-based Message Authentication, Reporting, and Conformance. In this comprehensive overview, we’ll delve into the world of DMARC, understanding its intricacies, significance, and its robust stance against email-based threats.

1. What is DMARC?

DMARC is an email authentication protocol designed to give email domain owners the ability to protect their domain from unauthorized use, commonly known as email spoofing. Its primary objective is to prevent attackers from sending malicious email from a domain they don’t own. Moreover, it provides insights, policy enforcement, and a reporting mechanism for domains.

2. The Mechanics of DMARC

DMARC operates by leveraging two established email authentication protocols:

  • SPF (Sender Policy Framework): It verifies that the sending server is authorized by the domain owner.
  • DKIM (DomainKeys Identified Mail): It ensures the email’s integrity by verifying if it was signed by the sending domain and hasn’t been tampered with during transit.

The combination of SPF and DKIM provides a strong validation method. DMARC then takes this a step further by introducing a policy layer.

3. DMARC in Action: Policy and Reporting

Once an organization has set up SPF and DKIM, they can configure a DMARC policy. This policy tells receiving servers what to do if an email fails either the SPF or DKIM checks:

  • None: No specific action; used mainly for monitoring.
  • Quarantine: Place the email in a quarantine area like the spam folder.
  • Reject: Don’t deliver the email at all.

Moreover, DMARC provides detailed reports on who is sending email on behalf of a domain, allowing domain owners to identify legitimate and fraudulent senders.

4. Setting Up DMARC for Your Domain

a. Establish SPF and DKIM:

Ensure you’ve correctly set up SPF and DKIM records for your domain.

b. Create a DMARC Record:

This is a TXT record in your domain’s DNS, which outlines your desired policy and reporting preferences.

c. Monitor and Adjust:

Initially, it’s advisable to use the ‘None’ policy to monitor the landscape. Once you’re confident, you can enforce stricter policies.

5. The Tangible Benefits of DMARC

a. Enhanced Email Security:

Directly counters phishing and spoofing attacks targeting your domain.

b. Improved Email Deliverability:

Emails are more likely to reach the recipient’s inbox rather than being flagged as spam.

c. Visibility and Control:

With DMARC reports, you gain insights into email sources, making it easier to spot anomalies.

6. Shortcomings and Considerations

While DMARC is potent, it’s essential to note:

  • Implementation Complexity: DMARC requires meticulous setup and ongoing maintenance to remain effective.
  • Dependence on SPF and DKIM: DMARC is only as effective as the underlying SPF and DKIM setups.


DMARC represents a significant evolution in the battle against email-based threats. By providing domain owners with the tools to authenticate emails and enforce policies against non-compliant messages, it substantially reduces the risk of malicious email activities. In an era where trust is digital gold, DMARC ensures that email, one of the oldest digital communication methods, remains relevant and secure.