Legal Article

DNA Evidence: The Critical Role of Intermediate Technology

Shivendra Pratap Singh


High Court Lucknow


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Published on: 6 Aug, 2023

The miraculous world of DNA evidence has revolutionized the justice system, providing a precise tool to link suspects to crime scenes or exonerate the innocent. However, as with all evidence, DNA is not a standalone entity. It relies heavily on the technologies that extract, analyze, and interpret it. This blog post underscores the importance of these intermediate technologies and why, without them, DNA evidence may not be admissible in court.

1. The Basics of DNA Evidence

DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the molecular blueprint of life. Each person’s DNA is unique (with the exception of identical twins), making it a powerful identifier. When collected from a crime scene, DNA samples can be compared to known samples to establish a link between a suspect and the scene.

2. The Role of Intermediate Technology

To make sense of DNA evidence, various technologies come into play:

  • Extraction: Removing DNA from a sample, such as blood or hair.
  • Amplification: Using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) to make millions of copies of the DNA, ensuring there’s enough to analyze.
  • Sequencing and Profiling: Determining the order of DNA bases and creating a DNA profile.
  • Comparison: Matching the crime scene DNA profile to known profiles.

Without these technologies, raw DNA is merely a biological sample with no intrinsic evidential value.

3. Why DNA Evidence Alone Isn’t Enough

  • Complexity: DNA is a complex molecule. Without technological interpretation, it cannot be understood or utilized as evidence.
  • Contamination Risk: Without technologies to amplify and profile DNA, it’s hard to determine if a sample has been contaminated.
  • Chain of Custody: Technologies used in DNA analysis also help establish a continuous chain of custody, ensuring the sample’s integrity.

4. Admissibility Challenges without Intermediate Technology

  • Reliability: Courts require evidence to be reliable. Without technological verification, the reliability of DNA evidence comes into question.
  • Relevance: Raw DNA doesn’t provide relevant information unless processed and interpreted through technology.
  • Potential for Error: Without proper technology, errors in DNA analysis can occur, leading to false positives or negatives.

5. Not All Technologies Are Created Equal

  • Validation: For a technology to be admissible in court, it often needs to be validated—proven to be reliable and robust.
  • Peer Review: Technologies and methods should be peer-reviewed, ensuring they meet scientific community standards.
  • Quality Control: Laboratories must demonstrate consistent quality control and assurance measures to ensure results are accurate and reproducible.

6. The Evolution of DNA Technology

As science progresses, so do the technologies associated with DNA evidence:

  • Next-Generation Sequencing: A newer method that offers more detailed genetic data.
  • Rapid DNA Analysis: Technologies that can produce DNA profiles in mere hours, useful for timely investigations.

These advancements, while promising, undergo rigorous scrutiny to ensure their accuracy and reliability before gaining widespread acceptance in the legal realm.


DNA evidence, while transformative, is intricately tied to the technologies that give it meaning. Without these intermediate tools and methods, DNA remains a complex biological entity without forensic context. For DNA to serve as a beacon of truth in the justice system, it’s imperative to recognize, validate, and uphold the technologies that translate its mysteries into actionable evidence.