Basic overview of how chak roads are marked

Shivendra Pratap Singh


High Court Lucknow


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The Uttar Pradesh Consolidation of Holdings Act, 1953, was enacted to consolidate holdings for better agricultural production and to make the land revenue administration more effective. The act is specific to the state of Uttar Pradesh in India. Among its many provisions, it details how to handle land holdings, including the demarcation of lands and the marking of ‘chak roads’.

‘Chak’ in this context refers to a block or segment of agricultural land. ‘Chak roads’ are pathways or roads that give access to these segments. The marking of these roads is crucial for providing easy access to farmers for their fields and ensuring efficient land utilization.

Here’s a basic overview of how chak roads are marked as per the Uttar Pradesh Consolidation of Holdings Act:

  1. Demarcation of Chaks: Before chak roads are marked, chaks (blocks of lands) are clearly demarcated. This demarcation is based on the existing rights of landholders, aiming to make their holdings contiguous and reduce fragmentation.
  2. Determination of Width: The Act specifies the width of chak roads. They must be wide enough to ensure ease of passage for carts, tractors, and other agricultural equipment.
  3. Layout: Chak roads are planned to ensure that every piece of agricultural land has access to a road. They typically border or circle chaks.
  4. Protection of Rights: While marking chak roads, care is taken to ensure that individual rights are not infringed upon. The process includes ensuring that no agricultural land is unnecessarily taken up for road construction and that landholders are compensated if their land is used.
  5. Public Notice: Before the finalization of chak roads, maps or plans indicating their proposed position are prepared and published for public inspection. Landholders and concerned parties can file objections or suggestions within a certain time frame.
  6. Hearing and Resolution: After receiving objections, hearings are conducted, and disputes are resolved based on evidence and ground realities.
  7. Finalization: Once objections have been considered and resolved, the chak roads are finalized. Any changes to these roads post-finalization require a fresh set of procedures and approvals.
  8. Maintenance: The responsibility of maintenance of chak roads often lies with the village panchayat or the concerned local body.

The Uttar Pradesh Consolidation of Holdings Act ensures a systematic approach to land consolidation and the marking of chak roads. This not only aids in effective agricultural practices but also ensures that landholders’ rights are protected.