Artefacts in Forensic Pathology: Recognizing Non-Natural Changes

Shivendra Pratap Singh


High Court Lucknow

Medico Legal

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Published on: 12 Aug, 2023

In forensic pathology, determining the cause and manner of death is a primary objective. However, this determination can be complicated by artefacts. Artefacts, in this context, refer to post-mortem alterations or changes to the body that were not caused by the disease or injury leading to death. Recognizing and differentiating these from genuine ante-mortem injuries is crucial for accurate forensic interpretations.

1. Definition of Artefact

An artefact in forensic pathology is any change or mark on a body that can be mistaken for a pathological or injury process but isn’t a result of disease, injury, or natural death processes.

2. Common Sources of Artefacts

  • Post-mortem Handling: This includes changes due to body transportation, storage, or during the autopsy itself. Examples include incisions, tissue removal, or even unintentional damage.
  • Environmental Factors: Decomposition, exposure to heat or cold, or interactions with wildlife can lead to artefactual changes. For instance, bloating and skin slippage are natural decomposition processes but can alter the body’s appearance significantly.
  • Medical Interventions: Resuscitation efforts, surgeries, or other medical treatments can introduce changes. These can include needle marks from injections, rib fractures from CPR, or surgical incisions.
  • Post-mortem Animal Activity: Animal scavenging can cause wounds that might be mistaken for ante-mortem injuries.

3. The Importance of Recognizing Artefacts

  • Avoid Misinterpretation: Misinterpreting artefacts can lead to incorrect conclusions about the cause or manner of death. For instance, post-mortem fractures might be mistaken for evidence of trauma.
  • Corroborate Evidence: Recognizing artefacts can help corroborate other pieces of evidence. For example, recognizing that a mark is a result of medical intervention can support hospital records or eyewitness testimonies.

4. Challenges in Identifying Artefacts

  • Overlapping Changes: Some artefacts can closely resemble ante-mortem injuries. For instance, post-mortem animal scavenging can mimic certain types of wounds.
  • Decomposition: The natural decomposition process can obscure or mimic injuries, making it challenging to distinguish between actual injuries and artefactual changes.
  • Varied Presentation: The same type of artefact can appear differently based on numerous factors, including the environment, the individual’s health, or the time elapsed since death.

5. Practical Steps in Artefact Recognition

  • Detailed Examination: A meticulous external and internal examination of the body is crucial.
  • Knowledge of Medical History: Understanding the decedent’s medical history can clarify whether certain changes are due to interventions or underlying health issues.
  • Correlation with Scene Information: Details from the death scene, including the body’s position, the presence of wildlife, or environmental conditions, can provide context.
  • Collaboration: Forensic pathologists often work closely with other experts, such as anthropologists, odontologists, or entomologists, to correctly identify certain artefacts.


Artefacts present a significant challenge in forensic pathology, necessitating a comprehensive and informed approach to post-mortem examination. By recognizing and accurately interpreting these non-natural changes, forensic pathologists ensure that their findings reflect the genuine circumstances leading to death. This accuracy is crucial for legal processes, where the cause and manner of death can have significant ramifications.


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